Brutalist architecture is a counterpoint to the international style, using substantial materials such as exposed concrete, brick and stone and creating works with a massive, monumental quality. The term ‘brutalism’ is derived from ‘Béton brut’ (raw concrete) and was first used in architecture by Le Corbusier. Much criticised in the late 20th century as being unwelcoming and inhuman, it has since re-emerged in modified forms such as structural expressionism (see High-Tech) and deconstructivism.

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